History and Horticulture

Sakura (cherry blossoms) have a long history in Toronto, and an even longer history in Japan. Click on a link below, or scroll down to learn more!

  1. History of Sakura in High Park
  2. Sakura Hanami in Japan
  3. The Cultivars Found in High Park
  4. Wildlife Value
  5. Other Sakura Sites to Visit
  6. More Information & Links 

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History of Sakura in High Park


In April 1, 1959, the Japanese ambassador to Canada, Toru-Hagiwara, presented 2000 Japanese Somei-Yoshino Sakura trees to the citizens of Toronto on behalf of the citizens of Tokyo. The trees were planted in appreciation of Toronto accepting re-located Japanese-Canadians following the Second World War. Many of these trees were planted on the hillside overlooking Grenadier Pond (southwest of the Grenadier Café) and around the east shore of the pond.

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In 1984, an additional small grove of Japanese cherry trees were planted along a pathway west of the Children’s Adventure Playground in High Park (near the Zoo parking lot). The trees were donated by Yoriki and Midori Iwasaki as a special gift to the people of Toronto and “a joyful symbol of life”.

Through the Consulate General of Japan in Toronto’s “Sakura Project”, 34 Yoshino ‘Akebono’ and Kwanzan ‘Fugenzo’ Sakura trees were donated to High Park in 2001 and planted on the east shore of Grenadier Pond near the Maple Leaf garden. In 2006,16 additional Yoshino Sakura trees were planted near the original 1959 planting site.

Plaques commemorating each of the plantings can be found under the cherry trees in High Park.

Click here to see a map of where the sakura trees were planted in High Park.

 

Sakura Hanami in Japan

Sakura is the Japanese name for flowering cherry trees and their flowers – often referred to as cherry blossoms. In Japan there is a legend that each spring a fairy maiden hovers low in the warm sky, wakening the sleeping cherry trees to life with her delicate breath.

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Sakura trees are the first to bloom, with flowers that are nearly pure white with a hint of pink near the stem. The blossoms last for about a week, blooming before the leaves flush out. Due to their very short bloom time, Sakura blossoms are seen as a metaphor for life itself, luminous and beautiful, yet fleeting and ephemeral.

The Japanese traditional custom of hanami or “flower viewing” dates back to the Nara Period (710-794) when the Chinese Tang Dynasty influenced Japan with their custom of enjoying flowers. Ume (Japanese apricot) blossoms were admired by most during this period, but by the Heian Period (794-1191) cherry trees attracted more attention and were planted and cultivated for their beauty, especially in Kyoto (Japan’s capital city during this era). The custom of hanami was originally limited to the elite and Japanese nobility but soon spread to samurai society and then blossomed to include all levels of Japanese society.

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To this day, when the Sakura trees bloom, Japanese people continue the tradition of hanami, gathering in great numbers during the day or evening to hold feasts and drink sake under the flowering trees. Many people also take part in processional walks through parks, contemplating and renewing their spirits under the Sakura trees. Hanami at night is called yozakura (meaning “night sakura”). In many places, paper lanterns are hung under trees for yozakura.

The Japanese Meteorogical Agency provides daily reports on the “sakura zensen” (cherry blossom front) as warmer weather moves up the island. Blossoming begins in Okinawa in January and reaches Tokyo by the end of March or beginning of April.

 

Cultivars Found in High Park


Not to be confused with High Park’s native cherry trees black cherry (Prunus serotina) and pin cherry (Prunus pennsylvanica), the flowering cherry trees associated with Sakura Hanami  (cherry blossom flower viewing) are not native to High Park, or even to Canada.  In fact, the most popular variety of flowering cherry blossom, the Yoshino cherry (Prunus x yedoensis) is completely unknown in the wild!

These trees are cultivars or plants that have been selected and bred for desirable characteristics and are maintained through cultivation. Different cultivars not only look different, but will respond to weather and the environment differently. This means they may bloom at different times, with one peaking then fading while the next bursts into flower.

A Beginners Guide to Cherry Tree Varieties



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Yoshino, Somei-yoshino — Prunus x yedoensis
Also known as the Tokyo cherry, Yoshino cherry trees are the most common flowering tree in Japan.  This was the first cultivar of sakura trees planted in North America. The flowers are white and fade to pink as the petals start to fall. They have almost no scent and a star shape in the centre.
 


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(Yoshino) ‘Akebono’ — Prunus x yedoensis ‘Akebono’
The Akebono cherry is a cultivar variety of the Yoshino cherries created in 1920 in San Jose, Callifornia.  It is the most common sakura tree planted in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The tree is very similar to the Yoshino trees, but the petals are brighter and the pink fades to white before the petals fall.


Prunus serrulataKwanzan ‘Fugenzo’ Prunus serrulata
In Japan, Prunus serrulata trees  are often refered to as sato-zakura, or village cherries.  They have been bred and cultivated for so long (possibly centuries) that their origins are completely unknown. These flowers are pink and frilly.

 

 

Wildlife Value


Though they are not native to Canada, these trees have incredible wildlife value, and benefit the ecosystem of High Park. The small fruits of the Yoshino and Akebono cherry trees are a source of food for small mammals, and many resident songbirds including American Robins and Northern Cardinals. Baltimore Orioles that have just migrated back to High Park in early May are often seen feeding on nectar from the Sakura blossoms.

In addition, these beautiful trees increase the canopy cover of the park.  More trees in our cities help reduce our carbon footprint by storing carbon and creating more oxygen for us to breathe. They also clean the air, soil and water by absorbing pollutants like carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide. They also provide a living space for small mammals and insects.

 

Other Sakura Sites in Toronto and Beyond


Thanks to the “Sakura Project”, many other sites in Toronto are graced by these beautiful trees, including the CNE, Trinity Bellwoods Park and the University of Toronto’s main and Scarborough campuses. Outside of Toronto, blossoms can be viewed at McMaster University and the Royal Botanical Gardens in Burlington. Cherry blossom viewing is a rite of spring in many cities across North America, where Sakura Matsuri (matsuri means “festival”) are held to celebrate the beauty of the Sakura trees. 

5 Places in Toronto to Find Cherry Blossoms Other Than High Park – blogTO

 

More Information & Links


For more information on High Park’s varieties of Sakura trees:
Yoshino Sakura trees (Prunus x yedoensis)
Akebono Sakura trees (Prunus x yedoensis ‘Akebono’)
Kwanzan ‘Fugenzo’ Sakura trees (Prunus serrulata ‘Fugenzo’)

More information on cherry blossoms in Toronto and other cities:
City of Toronto – Cherry Blossoms in High Park and other city parks

American National Cherry Blossom Festival (Washington DC)

Japanese Consulate and the Sakura Project

Vancouver Cherry Blossom Festival